For a person to obtain clear vision, the focusing power of the eye’s cornea (front of eye) and lens (eye’s focusing mechanism) must result in the image of an object falling on the retina (back of eye). When this does not occur, the eye is said to be ametropic.
There are three different classes of ametropia (refractive errors):
-Hyperopia (long sightedness)
-Myopia (short sightedness),
-Astigmatism (poorly shaped cornea).
In the cases of uncorrected hyperopia and astigmatism, the eye’s muscles are having to work harder in order to keep the image in focus. Consequently, a person may experience tired or aching eyes, poor concentration, headaches and blurring of vision particularly with close work.
Schematic section of the human eye.
Hyperopia (long sightedness) is where the light is focused behind the retina and consequently the image is blurred close up. Hyperopia is corrected by spectacles or contact lenses.
Resting long sighted eye: image is blurred.
With spectacles or contact lenses the image is focused by bending light rays.
Astigmatism is another type of visual defect and can accompany myopia or hyperopia. Astigmatism is when the cornea is not a perfect spherical shape so that images will be more blurred in some particular directions. Astigmatism may cause a blurring of objects at all distances and even a tendency for the person to squint in order to improve vision. Astigmatism is also correctable with spectacles and contact lenses.
Presbyopia is another type of eye condition and frequently occurs with the ageing process. As a person ages, the lens (inside the eye) starts to change it’s structure as well as lose the flexibility necessary for focusing on near objects ( focusing on near objects is called accomodation- and requires the lens to change shape). This loss in the elasticity of the lens makes it difficult for a person to focus on near objects, and tasks such as reading and sewing become difficult. This blurring up close, may be worse in dim lighting or more noticeable when the person is tired.
Other symptoms may include tired & sore eyes, slow adjustment in changing focus from one distance to another, headaches, and even a disinterest in reading.
Onset of Presbyopia is usually around the age range of 40-60 years of age, and there is no known cure. However, Presbyopia can be easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses, which may need to be periodically adjusted up to the age of 60 years.
Eye Problems may contribute to Headaches and Migraines, so it is important to have them professionally addressed. It is also important to investigate for other potential causes, as many cases of Headaches and Migraines have more than one ingredient.
Key Words:pains, eyepain, eye pains, eyestrain, eye strain, eye pain, hyperopia, hemianopia, glaucoma, myopia, optic nerve, optic neuropathy, papilloedema, astigmatism, presbyopia, optometrist, optometry, optometrists, ophthalmologists
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Paula Monaco BSc Optom(Melb) BA (Melb) FVCO
264 Doncaster Rd.
Balwyn Nth. 3104 Melbourne. Australia.
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